Essays on the industrial revolution

essays on the industrial revolutionMany students have been assigned by their professors to write essays on the industrial revolution. The Industrial revolution brought about major changes. It transformed the economy from being largely agricultural-based and handicraft-based to one that was machine-based. The American and European societies were completely dependent on hand-produced agriculture. This meant that there was less production. Industrialization and the introduction of mass-producing machines changed all this in the second half of the 18th Century. The modern production method led to mass production which created major economic changes.

Many social changes were also wrought by the industrial revolution. This revolution created new jobs, lower prices, improved quality of life, and better communication. The industrial revolution wasn’t without its flaws. It did make life better, but it also created harsh working conditions. Industrialization led to higher levels of pollution, lower wages, and sometimes even unemployment.

The Industrial Revolution: History

While writing essays on the industrial revolution, it is important for students to consider its history. The economy was entirely dependent on agriculture and handcrafted products before the industrial revolution. This resulted in fewer products being produced, and higher production costs and goods. All this changed when machines and factories were introduced in the late 1800s and the middle of the 1800s. Industrial revolution transformed a largely rural, agricultural-based society into an urban, machine-powered factory. It started in Britain, and quickly spread to America, Japan, and other European countries.

Many social and economic changes were brought about by the industrial revolution. Find out more about the impact of the industrial revolution on society, and its benefits and drawbacks.

The Industrial Revolution’s Impactessays on the industrial revolution

Besides, essays on the industrial revolution focuses on its impact. Many important developments were made possible by the industrial revolution. The first was the transformation of the textile industry. To make cleaning, gathering, spinning, and weaving easy, machines were invented. Modern production methods allow for large quantities of cloth to be made at once. Further improvements were made by the steam engine. Industrialization began to spread to other industries, such as banking, transport, and farming.

The Industrial Revolution’s Advantages

  • Easy Production: Industrialization allowed for more efficient and cheaper production. It also made production faster and more efficient.
  • Innovation and development: With the industrial revolution, innovation and development were possible in many fields such as communication, transportation, agriculture, and so on.
  • More job opportunities: With the advent of machines, factories and other industrial technologies came new jobs that required specialized skills. The quality of life was also improved by better economic opportunities.
  • Healthcare has improved: Many advances in healthcare were made by the industrial revolution. Healthcare was improved by the ease of manufacturing medical equipment and medicines.

Despite its many advantages, the industrial revolution also had its drawbacks. Som of the cos listed by students on essays on the industrial revolution are:

  1. Unemployment: Many jobs have become obsolete due to the invention of computers. These jobs went away from the hands of those who performed them and their families. This resulted in unemployment and poverty.


  1. Overcrowding in cities: As more people move to cities from rural areas, hoping for better wages and better living conditions, the cities become overcrowded. Unsanitary living conditions were created and diseases spread by the sudden influx of migrants into poorly planned cities.


  1. Factory owners valued profit above all else. Workers were not paid enough and had to work extra hours without regard for safety. Working conditions in factories were unsafe for workers’ health because of the dirt, soot, smoke, and chemicals that were expelled from them. In some cases, this led to accidents and injuries that could have resulted in death.

essays on the industrial revolution

  1. Pollution: The greatest ills of the industrial revolution were the pollution and other environmental ills it created. Also, factories used inexorably natural resources, which caused global warming and other environmental problems.


  1. Economic gap: Factory and industry owners viewed their profits above all else. The workers were therefore exploited, and they were forced to work in unsafe conditions for low wages. The factory owners became richer while the workers remained poor. This uneven distribution of wealth led to an economic gap.


In their essays on the industrial revolution, students also consider how the revolution made our society better. We can still enjoy the benefits of innovation by not compromising safety or equality.


The Industrial Revolution: Characteristics


The Industrial Revolution was characterized by technological, socioeconomic and cultural changes as revealed by students writing essays on the industrial revolution. These technological advances included

  • the development of new materials, principally iron and steel;
  • the creation of new energy sources such as electricity, gasoline, diesel, and internal-combustion engines;
  • the invention and use of new machines such as the spinning jenny, power loom, and
  • the establishment of a factory system. This allowed for increased productivity and lower energy consumption.
  • significant developments in transportation and communications, including the steam locomotive and steamship; automobile, plane, telegraph, radio; and
  • an increasing use of science to industrial processes.

These technological advances enabled a greatly increased use of natural resources as well as mass production of manufactured goods.


Students also highlights many other developments were also made in the non-industrial spheres when developing essays on the industrial revolution. These include:

  • agricultural improvements, which allowed for the provision of food to a larger population.
  • Economic changes that led to a greater distribution of wealth and decreased land as a source.
  • Political changes reflecting the shifts in economic power as well as new state policy that corresponds with the industrialized society’s needs.
  • Social changes such as the growth of cities and the development of working class movements and the emergence new patterns of authority.
  • Cultural transformations The workers acquired unique skills and changed their relationship to their jobs. Instead of being craftsmen who used hand tools, they became machine operators and were subject to factory discipline. The psychological shift was complete: workers felt more confident in their ability to manage resources and master nature.

The first Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution took place mainly in Britain between 1760 and 1830. Many essays on the industrial revolution suggests that the British, aware of their advantage, prohibited the export of machinery and skilled workers as well as manufacturing techniques. Because some Britons saw lucrative industrial opportunities abroad, the British monopoly was not sustainable.

However, continental European businessmen wanted to attract British know-how to their own countries. William and John Cockerill were two Englishmen who brought the Industrial Revolution into Belgium. They opened machine shops in Liege (c. 1807) and Belgium was the first country to become economically transformed. The Belgian Industrial Revolution was centered on iron, coal and textiles, just like its British predecessor.


The second Industrial Revolution


Even though there was a lot of overlap with the “old”, there was growing evidence for a “new” Industrial Revolution in the 20th and 21st centuries. Modern industry started to use many new and natural resources, including rare earths, lighter metals and new alloys. It also began to explore new energy sources.

These developments were combined with improvements in machines, tools and computers that led to the creation of the automated factory. While some industries were nearly fully automated in the mid-19th century and later, the automatic factory, which is distinct from an assembly line, gained its greatest significance in the second half the 20th century.




It is also important for students to discuss the cause of industrial revolution when writing essays on the industrial revolution. The Industrial Revolution began in Britain in 18th century, but quickly spread to North America and Europe. The Industrial Revolution was triggered by several factors, according to historians, such as the emergence and expansion of capitalism, European imperialism, attempts to mine coal and the effects of Agricultural Revolution.

Capitalism was an essential component of the rise to industrialization. History calls laissez-faire capitalism the form of capitalism that was common during the Industrial Revolution. Sometimes, laissez-faire capitalism can also be called free market capitalism or market capital. Let’s just say that laissez-faire means “leave it alone”, meaning that the government should not be involved in the economy, but instead let individuals manage their own economic affairs.

It was revolutionary because mercantilism was the dominant economic system in the past centuries. Mercantilism can be described as an economic system that favors heavy government regulation and control. Absolute monarchs were able to rule over large empires and control almost all aspects the economy under mercantilism. Adam Smith was one of the first to oppose mercantilism and advocate for an economic system that allows individuals more freedom.

The impact of European Imperialism was the next important factor in the Industrial Revolution’s development. Although imperialism was not directly responsible for the Industrial Revolution’s birth, it was a key factor in the rise of industrialization. The concept of imperialism is when one country controls another’s territory through military, political, or economic control.

After the Age of Exploration, Europe’s most powerful countries (Britain and France, Spain, Portugal Portugal, Germany, Belgium, and others) were able to take control of their regions through military, political, or economic control. To create large empires, they undertook massive imperial campaigns. This period, known by historians as the Age of Imperialism was when large parts of the world were under European control. These included North America, South America and Africa.

The Age of Imperialism was generally a period that occurred before and during industrialization. European nations colonized North and South America starting in the 15th century with Christopher Columbus’ four voyages to New World. In the following centuries, other areas of the globe were occupied. For example, Africa was not colonized until the end of 19th century or early 20th century. Historical historians view the Industrial Revolution as the cause of the Age of Imperialism’s later stages.

For many reasons, European imperialism was crucial to the beginning of the Industrial Revolution (especially in Britain). The Age of Imperialism saw the creation of colonies that provided large quantities of raw material to European countries, which could be used to make goods in factories. During this period, for example, the Atlantic Ocean Trade Triangle was formed. The Trade Triangle was a network of European factories that used resources from North America and South America to feed their operations.

The goods were then shipped to Africa and sold for slaves. Slave workers were then sent to North and South America to work in plantations that produced cotton. They would then be returned to European factories. European imperialism was able to provide the resources needed for mass production of goods. Second, European imperialism helped to create large markets for goods. essays on the industrial revolution

As an example, European countries established trade routes when they colonized regions of the globe. Any goods made in European factories could be exported and sold around the globe. Because European factories could produce more goods, this helped industrialization expand. Britain, for example, was the first to feel the effects of the Industrial Revolution. It used its immense empire to both acquire resources and to sell the newly produced goods.


Britain-A Center of Industrial Revolution


Many students, when writing essays on the industrial revolution note that Britain’s early industries were small-scaled and undeveloped. The textile industry was actually the largest industry in Britain. However, it was the “cottage industry” that was the most important. Industrial development was slow due to limited power sources. The only available sources of power were old technologies like waterwheels and windmills.


The country was home to a large number spinners, dyers and weavers, making it the heart of the industrial revolution.


Innovations in the 18th & 19th Centuries


A significant number of essays on the industrial revolution by students across the board mention how several innovations in the mid-eighteenth century brought major changes to the way industries in England worked. The steam technology revolution and the invention the steam engine have changed the way the industry is powered.

Steam power was made possible by the introduction of steam engines. This allowed steam power to be used in many industries across Britain, including paper, flour and cotton mills, ironworks and distilleries. Steam engines allowed industries to obtain the most important raw material coal efficiently and improved the quality of metals.


The power loom was the next major innovation in the textile industry. Power looms allowed for the production of light and cheap cloth in large quantities. The industry was able to work longer hours and more efficiently due to the availability of steady power.


Despite technological advances, factories were still places where accidents often occurred. Factory workers had to be disciplined and children were allowed into the factories.


The transport system in Britain was another major improvement. The industrial revolution saw major improvements in the rail and road networks. Transport system improvements reduced travel time. The invention of railroad signaling and telegraphy improved communication.


Industrial Revolution: The Impacts


Students needs also to consider the impact of industrial revolution when drafting essays on the industrial revolution. Industrial revolution was a major shift in economic and social aspects. The following are some of the most significant impacts:


  • The introduction of the factory system, where manufacturing was concentrated in large and centralized establishments.


  • The increasing use of steam and water power has improved power supply and automated the process of cloth weaving.


  • This increased international trade and distributed the wealth.


  • Although cities grew in size, they were often dirty.


  • To oversee work in factories, managers were created. The concept of division labor was also introduced.


  • As more people moved into cities to make a living, the urban population grew.


  • Increasing production made the products more affordable to purchase and factory owners became the richest strata of society.


  • Legislation to protect factory workers.


  • Urban sprawl and pollution are on the rise.


Possible industrial revolution Essay Topics


Students can use some of these questions when developing essays on the industrial revolution. Many history essay topics can be covered, including the Industrial Revolution. We will provide you with a list with possible essay topics, divided into different categories so you can share it with your students.


  • The Industrial Revolution: Causes


  • These essay questions focus on the Industrial Revolution’s origins and aftermath.


  • What was the Industrial Revolution?


  • What and how did the Industrial Revolution occur?


  • What is the origin of the Industrial Revolution in Britain?


  • What was the difference between industrialization in the United States and the United Kingdom?


  • What led to the Industrial Revolution from the agricultural revolution?


  • What was the significance of the cotton gin to the Industrial Revolution?


  • What was the significance of the steam engine to the Industrial Revolution?


  • What did immigration do to the United States’ industrialization?


  • The Industrial Revolution: Features


These essay questions focus on the Industrial Revolution.


  • How did the Industrial Revolution impact people’s self-reliance and independence?


  • How did iron production change during the Industrial Revolution?


  • What was the reason cities and towns grew during and after WWII?


  • How has industrialization changed working-class families?


  • What role did science play in the Industrial Revolution’s success?


  • Why was the railroad so important in American industrialization? What was the impact of the railroad’s arrival?


  • What was the relationship between education and the Industrial Revolution?


  • What led to urbanization in the Industrial Revolution?


  • Are you positive or negative about the Industrial Revolution’s impact on working-class people?


  • What was the impact of the Industrial Revolution on the middle class?


  • What did factories do to change the working environment? What did it do for children?


  • What were the working conditions and risks faced by workers in factories during World War II?


  • What was healthcare like in the Industrial Revolution?


  • Are you positive or negative about the Industrial Revolution?


  • What did the Industrial Revolution do to women’s roles?


  • Name three of the most important inventors of the Industrial Revolution and explain the significance of their inventions.


  • What did the Industrial Revolution do to women of middle-class and working class?


  • How much was child labor a problem in the Industrial Revolution?


  • What was the reform bill of 1830 supposed to accomplish? Why was it so important?


  • What was the difference between Chartists and Socialists?