History of Autism Essay
Eugen Bleuler, a psychiatrist, first used the term autism in 1908. It was used to describe a patient with schizophrenia. It was used to describe a patient isolated from his world. Hans Asperger and Leo Kanner were the pioneers in studying ASDs. Both of them worked independently and looked at different children. Both of their studies revealed that the children they studied had similar characteristics. Asperger’s and Kanner’s children were less active than normal children and had poor fine motor skills. (Mandal)
Leo Kanner, a psychologist, working with several children, first described Autism in 1943. He later described the children’s withdrawing behaviors as Autism. In behavioral therapy, the most effective treatments were used to treat Autism in the 1970s and 1980s. Worldwide, Autism has been identified in tens of millions of people. It affects both genders, all races, and ethnicities, as well as people of all socioeconomic levels. A Surveillance Summary was done in the United States in 2010. It found that 1 in 68 children was diagnosed with Autism (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2014).
Initial signs of Autism are present in the first 18 months. However, 24-40% of cases show a decline between 18-24 months. ASD is characterized by communication, social interaction, and behavior. However, not all people will notice them.
It is important to keep a consistent routine to predict the behaviors. Others that are common are unusually intense or concentrated interests, repetitive stereotypical body movements and objects repetitive use, insisting on sticking with routines, unusual sensory interests and sensory sensitivities, intellectual impairment, or learning disabilities.
People with Autism have difficulties in social interaction, especially when establishing and maintaining friendships. Autism suffers from a reduced ability to respond to non-verbal communication, such as facial expressions, gestures, and eye contact. They are often unable to express their needs fully because they cannot understand and interpret the needs of others. This makes them appear distant and unable to interact with others. Their inability to understand nonverbal communication, which leads to social withdrawal, is caused by a delay in speaking.
There are many ways to do it.
What is Autism? Autism spectrum disorder refers to various diseases that can affect how a child thinks.
They also have low muscle mass and tone. They are often inactive. Their motor skills are affected. They are sensitive to unusual sounds, touch, smells, and tastes. You can use an alarm, a flashing light, or scratchy fabrics to alert them. They are susceptible to severe allergies and have poor immune systems. These include severe rashes, allergies, and gastrointestinal and ear infections. Many of these people also have visual and hearing impairments. You may have wondered. Is there a way to treat ASD? Is it possible to recover from ASD? “You can’t recover from autism, but you can improve.” (Wiseman 41). According to professionals, an ASD diagnosis does not guarantee a child’s full recovery. However, this does not mean that the individual cannot make improvements. ASD is a permanent diagnosis. While you cannot fully recover from ASD, you can try to return to normal. Expert advice is often the best way to heal. Spend more time with your child. Jacob’s mom was told by her son that Jacob would never tie his shoes. But she spent hours working with him to reach that goal.
Due to the large-scale involvement of US psychiatrists during World War II, a common language and standard criteria were necessary to classify mental disorders. The American Psychiatric Association (APA), a national organization, published the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. DSM-I was published in 1952. It included Autism as “schizophrenic response, childhood type” but did not provide any guidance for diagnosis.
DSM-III was published in 1980. Infantile Autism was removed from schizophrenia and made the basis of a new category called “pervasive developmental disorder.” It was based on Kanner’s two cardinal signs, “pervasive loss of responsiveness to others” and “resistance for change.” This would exclude all children later diagnosed with Asperger syndrome. Children who lost their skills within the first thirty months of life were eligible for “Childhood-Onset Pervasive Developmental Disorder” (“COPD).
DSM-III-R was published in 1987. It was updated to reflect the recommendations of a task team that included Lynn Waterhouse and Lorna Wing. The word “infantile, ” used in the original DSM-III-R, was removed. “Kanner’s syndrome” was renamed “autistic disorder,” and there was no age of onset. The revision also included a new criterion, “Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified”. This was the most common PDD diagnosis.
After the publication of DSM-III-R and DSM-III-R, autism prevalence rates increased worldwide. The overall trend was clear: “Autism spectrum disorder might be as prevalent as 1 in 100 children.” After a comprehensive analysis of the Family Fund database for the UK Department of Education and Skills, PricewaterhouseCoopers concluded that the increase in Autism resulted from improved diagnosis and recognition of the disability.
The United States witnessed a similar development, thanks to a series of amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. IDEA included Autism in 1991 as a separate category of disability. This allowed children diagnosed with Autism to have access to individualized instruction and other services. State legislators also passed laws that made public funds available for families to receive early intervention therapy.
It was not until the early 1990s that standard clinical tools were available to screen for Autism. However, the checklists were based solely on parental recall, not clinical observation. A child’s score could vary depending on the parent who filled out the checklist. Eric Schopler, TEACCH’s colleague, introduced the Child Autism Rate Scale (CARS) in 1980. This scale was effective at distinguishing Autism from other developmental delays such as intellectual disability. The rater observed the child interact with a one-way mirror and scored him on a seven-point continuum. It included verbal and nonverbal communication, interaction and sensory responsiveness, intellectual functioning, and interaction with people and things. CARS used DSM-III-R’s spectrum model of Autism to assess behaviors. Independent analysis showed that the scale was consistent and reliable and matched other assessment methods well. Schopler published a second edition in 1988 of CARS, which could be used to diagnose adults and teenagers. A novice can produce as accurate ratings as seasoned clinical observers by reading the manual and watching a 30-minute video.
Six months later, Rain Man was opened. An international team of researchers introduced a comprehensive tool, the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. The ADOS was based on the criteria to be included in the DSM-IV and became the gold standard for an autism assessment.
In 1988, Asperger’s syndrome was first recognized internationally. Lorne Wing had lobbied the World Health Organization to include Asperger Syndrome in the 10th edition of the International Classification of Disease. This ICD, published in 1990, was the International Classification of Disease. Asperger syndrome was added to DSM-IV in 1994.
Leominster is located forty-five miles northeast of Boston. It is the birthplace of Johnny Appleseed. It was known as “The Plastic City” in the 1940s because one-fifth of its residents worked for plastics companies like Foster Grant. Foster Grant is the company that made sunglasses fashionable. It soon became known as “Pollution City” because the Nashua River raged with red, white, and blue water. Foster Grant then outsourced frame manufacturing to Mexico. State authorities declared the defunct plant a hazardous-waste location.
A couple from Leominster, Larry Altobelli and Lori Altobelli, had their second child Joshua two years after the closed plant. He was three years old when he was diagnosed as having PDD-NOS. Jay, his younger brother, was diagnosed with PDD. Larry Altobelli later discovered that his two friends, who grew up in the same neighborhood, also had autistic children. Lori, a master’s student in health care administration, asked parents if they’d ever lived in the same neighborhood as her husband at support group meetings for Autism. Surprised at how many people said yes, she was stunned.
Although one might expect such research would be essential to understanding Autism, it was not translated into English. It took a year for the English-speaking world to learn about Asperger’s research from Lorna Wing, a British psychiatrist who published an article in 1981 about him. She called his more specialized diagnosis “Asperger’s Syndrome” and created the term “the Autism Spectrum”. Uta Frith, a German developmental psychologist, could not translate Dr. Asperger’s works into English until a decade later. This made Asperger’s Syndrome a recognized universal disorder.