Discrimination or violence among police officers?
Police brutality seems to be inextricably linked to racism. This is a serious problem that has led to situations in which police officers and African American citizens have been killed or injured. The United States Census Bureau reported in 2014 that only 13.2% of the population is African American. Anybody can be a victim to police violence, regardless of race. However statistics show that African Americans are being killed more often than Hispanic and Caucasian people. These African American victims are also more likely to be unarmed at the time of their death.
Hinds wrote that between 1960 and 1968, police killed 1,188 black men and 1,253 white men in a population of about ten per cent. Both whites and blacks saw a rise in homicides caused by police intervention over time, but the rate for blacks has remained at least nine times higher for the past 18 year. This shows that police brutality is a problem because of race. The media has increased awareness of the seriousness and frequency of incidents involving police brutality in recent years. The act of law enforcement members mistreating minorities–specifically African American members of society–has commonly been mocked, and normalized.
The majority of society ignores racism or denies that there is any. Many people believe racism will disappear if everyone stops acknowledging it. Racism is still very present in our society. It is more harmful than beneficial to ignore racism or claim to be color blind when it comes to race. One reason why many encounters with police end in excessive force against an African American person seems to be racism. Racism is fuelled by hatred and degrades our morality. Phillip Goff, an assistant psychologist at UCLA, showed examples of incidents involving law enforcement officers using deadly force. The examples showed that 80% occurred after the officers’ masculinity had been threatened. Surprisingly Dr. Goff found that during realistic simulation exercises, threats to an officer’s masculinity were more predictive of the use of deadly force than explicit measures of racial prejudice. Of all the cases where police officers were accused of murdering unarmed African Americans, the officer claimed they felt threatened. But is this really the basis of such brutality?
A person can easily identify a Police officer by his uniform. This subconsciously communicates authority and power. Because of the fear of being caught, people who are accompanied by a police officer will tend to conceal or stop illegal and deviant acts. Canada is home to many cultures and diverse ethnicities, which have come together to form a strong sense multiculturalism.
According to a study, children also see the power of police uniforms, just as adults. Three scenarios were shown to children from aboriginal families aged five to nine years old. They were then asked who could make an arrest by using the scenarios. The first picture featured a policeman in uniform. The second photo showed the officer wearing the uniform. The third picture featured a man, who was not a cop, but still wearing the uniform. It was quite surprising that the children who were wrong chose the third illustration. This suggests that children do see power in the uniform. The children are more vulnerable to the influence of their parents’ stereotypes and biases about the police because they have suffered from injustices and chronic inequalities as a result.
Forms of Police Brutality and Harassment by Police, and Police Discrimination
Police officers are taught to put aside personal biases and use their legal powers properly. They also learn how to avoid police brutality, harassment, discrimination and other forms of police brutality. False arrest . However, officers are not afraid to misuse their power or act upon unjustified assumptions, despite their training.
As a result, instances of police brutality and police harassment, discrimination and false arrest are common. Most cases of police assault or abuse involve excessive physical force or sexual misconduct . Officers are well-known for not speaking out against one another – an unwritten code of conduct known simply as the “bluewall of silence” which allows them to commit acts such as police brutality or harassment, discrimination, and false arrest without being disciplined by their superiors.
Police Conduct and Your Rights
The only way for victims of such police abuse and assault to seek justice is through a legal complaint.
Police Intimidation and Police Brutality
According to the Cato Institute, police brutality, intimidation, and verbal abuse are the most common and frequent sources of abuse and complaints about police officers. This includes verbal abuse, physical attacks, verbal violence, firearm-related complaints and taser related complaints. Also, complaints involving police dogs and vehicles, chemical weapons, or police dogs are all examples of police brutality. The most fatalities from police brutality involve cases involving firearms and physical force, as well as tasers.
Both within and outside police departments, incidents of police discrimination occur. This includes racial profiling and improper search & seizures.
Harassment by the Police, Sexual Harassment and Sexual Abuse, as well as Sexual Misconduct
When an officer is found guilty of sexual harassment or sexual misconduct, it can lead to cases of sexual harassment and/or sexual acts on an adult or minor. The CATO Institute states that sexual misconduct and harassment by police officers are the second most common sources of police-related complaints. This includes consensual sexual activity, child molestation, and sexual assault while an officer is on duty.
False Arrest, Wrongful Search and Seizure
The 4th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution states that the police can’t make arrests, search people or their property, seize items, or perform surveillance without prior authorization from a judge. You may have a claim for wrongful search, seizure or surveillance if the police obtain personal data or conduct surveillance without your approval.
Police Brutality and Discrimination of Harassment, Harassment, and the Law
Police officers should not be treated unfairly, especially when they are there to protect and serve you. You may be eligible for compensation if you, or someone you love, is a victim of police brutality, victim of police discrimination, victim to police harassment, or victim to false arrest.
Police brutality has been used against all Americans, races, classes, ages, and genders. For example, working-class and poor whites were frustrated by discriminatory police tactics in northern cities during the late 19th century and early 20th centuries. At the same time, many immigrants from eastern and southern Europe complained about police brutality towards their communities. Many urban police departments used extralegal tactics in the 1920s against members of Italian-immigrant community in an effort to combat organized crime. The Los Angeles Police Department was complicit during attacks on Mexican Americans by U.S servicemen in the so-called Zoot Suit Riots. This reflects the department’s history hostile toward Latinos (Latinos) In 1969, the Stonewall Riots triggered by a raid on a gay bar in New York City by the police. This was the start of a new era in militancy within the international gay rights movement. After the attacks on September 11, 2001, Muslim Americans started to complain about police brutality. This included harassment and racial profiling. In an attempt to find terrorists, many local law enforcement agencies conducted covert operations of questionable legality to infiltrate and surveil mosques and other Muslim American organisations. This practice went unchecked for over a decade.
Despite the diversity of the victims of police brutality in the United States the vast majority have been African American. Experts believe that the main reason for the high number of victims of police brutality in the United States is the antiblack racism of members of predominantly white police departments. Similar prejudices may have been a factor in the police brutality against other historically marginalized groups.
While racism is a significant cause of police brutality against African Americans and other ethnicities, it is not the only reason. Another factor is the unique institutional culture urban police departments. This emphasizes group solidarity, loyalty and a “show-of-force” approach to any challenge to an officer’s authority. Acceptance, success, promotion, and advancement within the department are dependent on adopting the values, attitudes, and practices that the group has historically infused with antiblack racist.
The United States has made African Americans the main target of police brutality, although they are not the only one. This article will focus on their experiences both historically and today.
Many white communities, including police departments, were not used to African Americans. They reacted with fear and hostility to their growing numbers. Exacerbated By deeply ingrained racism Stereotypes . Northern police departments believed that African Americans and African American men were possessed of an identity, which was in line with the beliefs held by many whites. Inherent Tendency to criminal behavior, which required constant surveillance of African Americans as well as restrictions on their movements segregation In the interest of white safety. Many urban police departments were beginning to rethink their missions in the 1950s as they primarily policing African Americans, i.e. protecting whites from Blacks.
There were many forms of police brutality that this situation caused. They included physical assault (e.g. beatings) as well as excessive use of force. These included illegal arrests, verbal abuse (e.g. racial insults and threats), sexual assaults on African American women and police homicides. Sometimes, police were complicit with drug dealing, prostitution and burglaries. They also participated in protection schemes and gun-smuggling in African American neighborhoods.
Although police brutality towards African Americans was a growing problem in urban areas by the middle of the 20th century, most white people didn’t know about it until the mid-1960s. This was largely because large-city newspapers, whose readers were predominantly white, did not consider it worthy of coverage. Police brutality was covered regularly in the Black press since the beginning of the 20th century. The national civil right organizations also collected thousands of letters and affidavits from African Americans detailing their personal experiences with police brutality.
Color and race are not the only problems
The process of stigmatizing an individual group is a key mechanism that discrimination can be created simultaneously. It is difficult for groups to claim equality in the eyes the law when they are stigmatized. It is harder for groups to claim equal status in the eyes of the law when they are stigmatized.
The usual social science framework considers discrimination and stigma to be mutual causes. Although stigma is often viewed as a mental condition, social scientists view it as a social phenomenon with quantifiable manifestations. The various manifestations of stigma can be measured: the experience of discriminatory or othering acts (experienced and heard stigma), the observation (witnessed and heard stigma) and secondhand perceptions of their likelihood (anticipated stigma), as well as internalization towards oneself (internalized shame). 7 Discrimination can be measured in its various manifestations. They are usually actionable under the law. While not always legal, other manifestations of stigma can cause significant harm to individuals and groups. Failure to address them will result in a weakening of the effectiveness of protection of human rights.
Sex workers around the globe are subject to high levels of violence and discrimination from police. The problem is widespread, but it is more severe in areas where sex work has been criminalized. This allows police to exploit power differentials and commit abuses against sex workers. This behavior violates the state’s obligations to respect various human rights under international and domestic law. These rights include the freedom from discrimination, freedom from cruel, degrading, or inhuman treatment; the dignity of one’s body; the right of privacy; the ability to treat oneself with dignity; and the right not to be subject to any form of harassment or intimidation by police.
The existing research has been framed by the stigma against sexworkers by police and health outcomes have mainly focused on those who experienced this stigma. This research has primarily focused on HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. It found strong evidence that negative police interactions are associated with decreased condom use and carrying, as well as an increase in the risk of HIV transmission.14
Researchers are encouraged by the trend for change. However, some worry that leaders may not be able to provide enough evidence to support their policies. For years, many have been advocating for better data about police use of force in America and rigorous studies to test interventions like training officers on how to deescalate tensions or mandating that they use body-worn cameras. These data and studies are now starting to come together, prompted by the protests that followed the shooting death of Michael Brown in Ferguson (Mississippi), and Eric Garner’s chokehold death in New York City.
Each year, approximately 1,000 civilians are murdered by US law-enforcement officers. According to one estimate, Black men are 2.5x more likely to be killed by police in their lifetime. Another study found that Black people who are fatally shot by police were twice as likely to be unarmed than white people. New evidence continues to support this link. California data shows that Black police officers used force against them in a disproportionate manner compared to other racial groups. A December 2019 paper stated that bias in administrative records of police leads many studies to underestimate levels of racial bias or mask discrimination completely.
It is difficult to create a policy because of the limited data available. The FBI established a national data set in 2019 that contains data from just 40% of US law enforcement officers.